What are the side effects and adverse reactions if one drinks too much water?
However, too little or too much of anything may not always translate into a good thing in life. This might also applies to essential daily fluids that, if ingested too much orally or intravenously, can cause dangerous medical issues and even one’s demise as per a water-drinking contest that killed a woman due to negligence. Only hours after favorably volunteering to participate in a Sacramento radio station KDND-FM (107.9)’s water drinking contest, a 28-year-old female named Jennifer Strange died of drinking too much water according to the examining coroner who described the life-threatening “water intoxication death” that caused hyponatremia (low sodium). As one of the contestants, Strange was handed eight-ounce bottles of water to drink every 15 minutes because she wanted to win a Nintendo Wii video game system.
Unfortunately and sadly, Strange’s mother discovered her daughter’s body at her home in the suburbs of Rancho Cordova in Sacramento, California on a Friday in the month of January 2007. Strange was apparently having a severe headache as per her coworker and employment supervisor’s recounts that day, “She said [that] she was on her way home and her head was hurting…and was crying….”
Water does not have the same consistency and levels of solute as the blood’s pH; it is mostly hypotonic and may cause a dilution of the vital salts in the body and producing a decrease in intrinsic sodium, preventing proper physiological functioning; it may lead to the swelling of the brain, compression of the brain in a closed compartment of the skull, and the sequelae of neurological symptoms and signs of nausea, vomiting, weakness, seizures, coma, and death. Other neurological disease that may occur include central pontine myelinolysis (also called osmotic demyelination syndrome or central pontine myelinosis) that is a severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brainstem which arises from sodium treatment induced. The latter is a complication of treatment of patients with profound, life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, which may be the result of chronic or untreated polydipsia (excessive thirst or excess drinking).
Polydipsia is a symptom and not an actual a disease state and can be either psychogenic or non-psychogenic. Some medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus can precipitate polydipsia. Primary polydipsia, which is excessive thirst and water intake due to an absence of a psychogenic stimulus, describes the 28-year-old female who drank disproportionate non-isotonic fluids that caused electrolyte abnormalities and her eventual death. On the other hand, psychogenic polydipsia is an excessive water intake in some patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and/or the developmentally disabled, where the amount of water ingested exceeds the amount that can be excreted by the kidneys.
As an aside for healthcare providers, sodium level abnormalities should be monitored and corrected appropriately (i.e., no more than 8-12 mmol/L of sodium per day or 18 m/Eq/L per 48 hours for treating hyponatremia) to prevent central pontine myelinolysis.
Replenish 360 (R360)’s excellent and knowledgeable staff and medical team understands wholly all of the risks and potential principal side effects that may accompany oral and intravenous administration of fluids, nutrients and receiving the other wellness services of Replenish 360 (R360).
Based on the renowned medical textbook, “The Fluid, Electrolyte & Acid-Base Companion” by Sarah Faubel, MD and Joel Topf, MD (who actually wrote this useful book throughout their respective internal medicine residency at the University of Colorado and medicine/pediatrics residency at the Indiana University), fluid, electrolyte and acid-base disorders are arguably one of the most puzzling and very complex topics and themes in medicine. It is well known that electrolyte disturbances and acid-base disorders from ineffective daily hydration not only significantly affect one’s neurological, respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular physiology but also may have largely systemic effects that prevent homeostasis in the body in all major organ systems and not just the ones stated. However, whether it’s Starling’s Law, volume regulation, osmoregulation, salt balances and imbalances, metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, for instance, Replenish 360 (R360)’s experienced medical professionals are cognizant of these important physiological effects of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disruptions that come from either an excess or deficit of these respective imbalances in the body.
Normal Saline (NS)
0.9% NaCl = 0.9 g% NaCL = 0.9 g of NaCl per 100 ml of solution
0.45% NaCl = 0.45 g% NaCl = 0.45 g of NacCl per 100 ml of solution
5% Dextrose in Water (D5W)
Contains 278 mmol/L dextorse
D = Dextrose
5 = 5 g%
W = Water
5 g% dextrose = 5 g per 100 ml of solution
Lactated Ringer’s (LR)
130 – 131 mEq of sodium ion = 130 mmol/L
109 – 111 mEq of chloride ion = 109 mmol/L
28-29 mEq of lactate = 28 mmol/L
4 – 5 mEq of potassium ion = 4 mmol/L
2 – 3 mEq of calcium ion = 1.5 mmol/L
Replenish 360 (R360)’s offices and/or professional IV hydration therapies, treatments, procedures, sessions, programs, and other wellness services may be open for scheduled and personalized FACILITY-BASED INDIVIDUAL & GROUP appointments through our website’s easy online registration, phone, email, or in person as a walk-in (if spaces are available). We have special requested PRIVATE/OUT-OF-SITE/MOBILE IV hydration therapies, treatments, procedures, sessions, programs, and other wellness services can be arranged at specified locations, dates and times:
- IV Hydration Therapy Tier 1 – R360 Signature Hydration
- IV Hydration Therapy Tier 2 – R360 Recovery Hydration
- IV Hydration Therapy Tier 3 – R360 Lifeline Hydration
- IV Hydration Therapy Tier 4 – R360 Personalized Hydration
- IV Hydration Therapy Tier 5 – R360 After Hours Hydration
- R360 Monthly Memberships
- R360 Boost Shots
We also offer the following wellness referral services:
- Personal Training
- Massage Therapy
- Acupuncture Therapy
- Behavioral Therapy
- Other Lifestyle modification and wellness strategies
- Central Pontine Myelinolysis
- Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005).
- Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, and National Academies’ Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
- Healthy Lifestyle: Nutrition and healthy eating – “Water: How much should your drink every day”
- Here’s How Many Days a Person Can Survive Without Water
- The Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid-Base Companion by Sarah Faubel, MD and Joel Topf, MD
- The Healthy Hydration Company
- “Water Requirements, Impinging Factors, and Recommended Intakes”
- Water, Hydration and Health
- Woman dies after being in water-drinking contest